Solonite, refined from Tylium ore, is the most powerful conventional explosive yet devised by man. Its explosive power, pound for pound, is 9x greater then TNT. Solonite is used by the Colonials, Cylons and most other advanced races.
Conventional measurement of nuclear weapon blast potential is in kilotons (thousand tons) or megatons (million tons) of TNT For the sake of convenience I have kept that convention.
Nuclear explosions do several types of damage, Blast or concussion, Flash or heat, EMP and Radiation.
Blast damage is limited in space since vacuum is a poor conductor of concussive force. It requires a direct hit or an explosion within a very short distance to generate blast damage against a ship. Landing bays are very vulnerable to blast damage in that the EPF will provide no protection and the atmosphere inside the bay will conduct the blast, passing the force into the hull of the ship.
Flash or heat damage does not transmit well in space, but any ship caught in the initial fireball will be exposed to extreme temperatures. Any ablative armor exposed will be vaporized. Again, landing bays are very vulnerable to flash damage.
EMP or Electro Magnetic Pulse has the effect of frying unshielded electronics. The ship’s EDF (if it has one) will shield it from MOST EMP effects IF the detonation occurred beyond the field effect. A contact detonation will bypass the EDF protection. The ship’s hull will also shield it from some EMP effects. Critical electronics on a warship are shielded from EMP or, ideally, are optical in design which is immune to EMP. Civilian vessels are more vulnerable. They lack EDF and optical circuitry is expensive so it is rare. Minimal shielding will be found on critical systems.
Radiation effects will be reduced by the EDF as with EMP. Magna hulls do an excellent job in shielding radiation, so even with a direct hit, exposure in the landing bays is the greatest concern. Civilian hulls, though not of magna, are still excellent at shielding radiation effects.
In general, unless the hull is breeched, or the explosion is extremely powerful and close, EMP and radiation exposure will be minimal.
The nukes employed by Cylon and Colonial forces are powerful, compact and configurable. Their yield can be adjusted at launching to vary from a minimum to a maximum. Nuclear warheads mounted on missiles for surface targets have smaller maximum yields then warheads for anti ship torpedoes. Large nuclear weapons are utilized in mines.
The smallest nuclear warheads, these have a variable yield from 1 kiloton to 500 kilotons. (Adjustable in increments of 10 kilotons.)
Larger, anti ship warheads can be mounted on missiles if circumstances warrant.
These come in two sizes, those that have a variable yield of 1megaton to 50 megatons (Adjustable in increments of 5megatons.)
And, those with a variable yield of 100 megatons to 500 megatons. (Adjustable in increments of 50 megatons.)
Typically mines are set with 500 megaton yields.